C - Aluminium glossary

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Calcination

Calcination is the process used to remove water from hydrated alumina (aluminium hydroxide); it is part of the Bayer process. The water molecules are...

Can stock

Can stock is the starting material for making cans, including the manufacture of lids and pull-tabs. Can stock can be processed using deep drawing,...

Cast structure / cast grains

During the solidification of a metal, so-called ‘crystallisation nuclei’ form at a large number of points in the melt. They grow continuously during...

Casting

Casting is the shortest available process for converting unrefined metal into finished parts. The principle is simple: aluminium alloys are heated to...

Casting alloys

There are two different types of aluminium alloy: wrought alloys and casting alloys. Casting alloys are those alloys that can only be shaped by...

Cathode

The cathode is the negative electrode in an electrochemical cell. During electrolysis, positively charged ions migrate to the cathode as part of the...

Caustic soda liquor

Caustic soda liquor is the digestion liquor used to extract aluminium oxide (alumina) from bauxite. The chemical formula is NaOH.

Cavitation corrosion

Cavitation corrosion can occur in materials that come into contact with liquids, and it is a result of the interaction of cavitation and corrosion....

Centrifugal casting

Centrifugal casting is a casting process in which molten aluminium is cast into a mould (permanent mould or sand mould) rotating at between 1500 and...

Ceramcast process

This is a casting process that compared to investment casting offers economic benefits for small production runs where high surface quality and...

Chemical conversion coating

A thin layer comprising oxy-hydrates or phosphates is applied to pickled aluminium components by means of chemical oxidation in an appropriate...

Chip shapes

Metal chips produced during machining can vary in shape depending on the design of the tool, the alloy composition and the shape of the cut.

Circles

The term ‘circles’ refers to the circular-shaped blanks used as the starting material in working processes such as impact extrusion or deep drawing...

Cladding

Cladding is the term used to describe the process whereby a layer of a less noble metal, and thus one that is more likely to corrode, is applied to...

Clinching

Clinching is a mechanical joining technique; the prepared edges of sheet parts are placed against each other or on top of each other and then folded...

Closed-die upsetting

Closed-die upsetting is the process by which solid rivets, screws and similar fasteners are manufactured. Wire is sheared off in several steps and...

Coarse-grain annealing

Coarse-grain annealing is a method of heat treatment. It is mainly used to treat cast shapes before they are subjected to a hot-working process in...

Coating

Coating is a form of surface treatment and it can be applied for various reasons: to increase wear resistance, for corrosion resistance or for...

Coefficient of thermal expansion

The coefficient of thermal expansion is a material-specific property that indicates the relative increase in length or volume when a substance is...

Coils

Coils are large spools of aluminium strip; the strip is wound directly into coils in the mill after rolling and then transported as coils.

Coil coating

Coil coating is a process in which a lacquer in liquid or powder form is continually applied to aluminium strip in a special unit. The strip is first...

Cold impact extrusion

Cold impact extrusion is a method of processing in which the metal is subjected to a high extrusion pressure. The material is plastically deformed...

Cold rolling

Cold rolling is usually the second processing stage in a rolling mill; after hot rolling, the cold hot-rolled strip is cold rolled in several passes...

Cold sealing

Like conventional sealing, cold sealing (or cold impregnation) is also a method of sealing the pores of anodised oxide films; it was developed in the...

Cold working

Cold working is the generic term for all chipless metal working processes, such as cold rolling, deep drawing etc., that are carried out at room...

Composite casting

Economic considerations mean that it is now necessary to use different materials with specific properties at the same time. With composite casting,...

Composites

Generally speaking, composites are materials that contain embedded metallic, ceramic or polymeric components in the form of particles, fibres or...

Conductor wire

Conductor wire is wire that is used to conduct electricity because of its favourable mechanical properties and good electric conductivity.

Container

In an extrusion or cold impact extrusion process the container is that part of the machine in which the material to be shaped is placed, as a billet...

Container foil

Container foil is foil that is rolled while it is still has an intermediate annealed or soft temper. It is usually made from alloys of the 3xxx and...

Contango

Contango is the term used to describe the situation on the LME when the cash price is lower than the futures price for delivery in 3 months. This is...

Continuous casting and rolling (roll casting)

n continuous casting and rolling, so-called ‘cast strip’ 2–30 mm thick is produced by injecting the molten aluminium through a sort of nozzle into...

Conventional sealing

Conventional sealing, like cold sealing, is carried out to seal the pores in the anodised oxide layer. This either reduces the ability of the oxide...

Converter foil

So-called ‘converter foil’ is usually soft annealed and then subjected to further processing, such as printing or colouring. Thin gauges, between 5...

Copper

Copper is one of the most important metals. It owes its significance amongst other things to its formability, ductility and good electric and thermal...

Corrosion

The term corrosion describes damage to solid materials caused by external influences, especially the effect of other materials; it starts at the...

Counter-pressure casting

Counter-pressure casting is a form of low-pressure die-casting. Not only is the molten metal subjected to pressure but also the mould. Further...

Crevice corrosion

Crevice corrosion is enhanced localised attack that occurs inside crevices in aqueous solutions. Further information on crevice corrosion

Crucible furnaces

Crucible furnaces are characterised by a tall crucible, narrow at the top, made from a clay-graphite mixture, silicon carbide or cast iron. Such...

Cryolite

Cryolite (Greek: kryos = frost and lithos = stone) is an aluminium compound containing sodium and fluorine. This mineral is used in fused-salt...

Crystals

When undergoing a change to the solid state, most materials form crystals. On an atomic scale, these crystals are often bounded by flat surfaces...

Cutting force

Generally speaking, the cutting force indicates the force needed for the machining of various materials. The so-called specific cutting force is the...