S - Aluminium glossary

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Sainte-Claire Deville, Henri-Etienne

Henri-Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, a French chemist (1818-1881), developed the first process for producing aluminium in larger quantities in 1854....

Sand casting

Sand casting is a casting process in which the mould is destroyed. Casting is carried out in silica sand moulds that are produced manually or with...

Satin finish

Satin finish describes a particular type of surface finish for sheet. The surface has a matt appearance and a very fine structure.

Scale

The term ‘scale’ is used to describe the thicker oxide film that forms on the surface of castings and has a rough appearance. Scale is usually...

Scrap

‘Scrap’ is a term used to describe aluminium that is destined for remelting to recycle it. One differentiates between new scrap, i.e. aluminium waste...

Secondary aluminium

Secondary aluminium is aluminium that has been produced from the recycling of used or new scrap. It accounts for some 30% of the world’s aluminium...

Segregation

‘Segregation’ is the term used to describe a phenomenon that can occur when molten metal solidifies. It leads to inhomogeneities in the structure,...

Selective corrosion

Selective corrosion is a form pf corrosion in which only certain less noble parts of a structure suffer attack, such as intermetallic phases or the...

Semi-finished products

Semi-finished products, or semis, are products such as strip, sheet, wire, profiles and tubes that are subsequently processed to finished products.

Semi-finished rolled products

Semi-finished rolled products is a term used to describe all flat-rolled products, especially strip, sheet and foil.

Semi-hollow profiles

Semi-hollow profiles are profiles with cavities that are not completely closed (e.g. they are U-shaped). Further information semi-hollow aluminium...

Shot-peen forming

Shot-peen forming is a special type of shot peening that enables work pieces to be bent about several axes. Small, round shot carefully impinge on...

Shrinkage cavity

During the casting of metals, macroscopic cavities or finely distributed pores (micro-shrinkage) form as a result of a decrease in volume when...

Silicon

Silicon is a non-metal; it does not occur freely in nature but is always found in combination with other elements. It is the second most abundant...

Silicon grain refining

Silicon grain refining of hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys leads to the conversion of the lamellar flakes of silicon present in the structure...

Sintering

Sintering is a process that is used to produce shaped parts from powder. The powder is compacted into a mould and then heated to a temperature close...

Slug

‘Slugs’ are the starting material for parts made by cold impact extrusion. They are usually made from unalloyed aluminium and are stamped out of...

Smelting

‘Smelting’ is the term used to describe the extraction of primary aluminium by the electrolytic reduction of alumina (fused-salt electrolysis). The...

Soft annealing

Soft annealing is a process in which cold-worked (and thus strengthened) metals are softened again to enable them to be processed further. The...

Softening

Cold working (such as rolling or cold impact extrusion) is accompanied by an increase in tensile strength as well as a loss in ductility; the...

Solid profiles

Solid profiles are profiles with geometrically simple, solid cross-sections without any enclosed areas. Further information on solid profile

Solid rivet

A solid rivet is a solid fastener for joining components. When the rivet is forced through the parts to be joined, there is plastic deformation of...

Solid solutions

In solid solutions, aluminium atoms in the crystal lattice are replaced by atoms of an alloying element at certain places. The atoms of the alloying...

Solid-solution hardening

Solid-solution hardening is a hardening mechanism. Foreign atoms dissolve in the aluminium crystal lattice to form solid solutions; this in turn...

Solidus temperature

The solidus temperature indicates the temperature at which a solidifying molten metal is completely solid.

Solubility limit

The solubility limit indicates the maximum amount of an alloying element that can be dissolved in a metal, such as aluminium, at a given temperature.

Solution heat treatments

Solution heat treatments are usually carried out as part of an age-hardening treatment. The alloying elements in the microstructure that are non-...

Space frame

Space frame is a technique used to manufacture car bodies in which aluminium components like deep-drawn aluminium sheets, profiles or cast parts are...

Specific heat

The specific heat is the thermal energy required to heat 1 kg of a substance through 1 °C. The unit of measure is J/kg∙K. Further information on...

Spinning

Spinning is a shaping process used exclusively for the production of round bodies. The working is carried out in a rotary manner in which a circle is...

Squeeze casting

Squeeze casting is a casting process that eliminates shrinkage cavities and shrinkage porosity to a great extent. An exact amount molten metal is...

Strain hardening

Strain hardening, which is also known as work hardening, is a method used to increase the strength of a metal. When a metal is subjected to working...

Strength

Strength is a measure of the resistance of a material to rupture or failure. The strength of most pure metals is low but it can be increased by...

Stress

Stress is the force applied over the cross-section of a material. There are different types of stress; for example, one can have tensile stresses or...

Stress corrosion cracking

Stress corrosion cracking is intergranular cracking that can occur under the combined influence of an aqueous corrosive medium and a tensile stress....

Stretch bending

Stretch bending is a forming process used for sheet. The sheet blank is firmly clamped between two jaws and then slowly stretched over a solid form,...

Stretch forming

Stretch forming is forming process for sheet. The sheet to be shaped is firmly clamped in two sets of jaws, which are usually positioned opposite...

Stretching

Where necessary, stretching is carried out after extrusion once the profiles have cooled down. It improves straightness and, if need be, ensures...

Strip

‘Strip’ is the term used for an aluminium rolled product with a thickness of between 0.02 and 0.35 mm that can be up to 3000mm wide and several...

Structural heterogeneity

‘Structural heterogeneity’ is the term used to describe crystals embedded in the structure that have a crystal lattice with a structure that differs...

Subgrains

Subgrains are parts of a single grain in the structure. They result from plastic deformation or thermal softening.

Surface treatment

The term ‘surface treatment’ is used to describe all techniques and processes for cleaning a metal surface and modifying its properties. Further...

Sustainability

Sustainability is a key concept of environment and development policy: sustainability means satisfying the needs of the people who are alive today...